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Request for Proposals (RFP): Wadata WASH Study International STTA

Request for Proposals (RFP): Wadata WASH Study International STTA

RFP Title: Wadata WASH Study International STTA

Issuance Date: Friday, June 21, 2019

Closing/Submission Date: Friday, July 5, 2019

Submission Location: Meredith Cann

 I.  Background information and Problem Statement

The U.S. Agency for International Development funds the Wadata Development Food Security Activity, which translates to “prosperity” in Hausa, through the Office of Food for Peace. It is implemented by a consortium led by Save the Children, with partners, National Cooperative Business Association/ CLUSA International (NCBA CLUSA), The Kaizen Company, and Développement pour un Mieux-Être (DEMI-E). Wadata’s goal is sustainably improved food and nutrition security and resilience among extremely poor and chronically vulnerable households and communities in Zinder. The Activity will achieve this goal through three Purposes:

  • Purpose 1: Enhanced collective action to address food, nutrition and water security shocks and stresses.
  • Purpose 2: Increased capacities, assets and agency for improved access to adequate and diverse foods at all times.
  • Purpose 3: Improved nutrition, health and hygiene for pregnant and lactating women (PLW), adolescents, children under 5 years old (CU5) and their families.

Through its areas of intervention, the Wadata Activity will contribute to the achievement of four (4) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):

  • SDG 2: Ensure food security and improve nutrition
  • SDG 3: To enable everyone to live in good health and promote the well-being of all at all ages
  • SDG 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
  • SDG 6: Ensure access for all to water and sanitation and ensure sustainable management of water resources.

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), as well as water services for both agriculture production and human consumption run through Wadata’s design as crosscutting points for leveraging and impact. This is because there are a range of water, sanitation and hygiene challenges in the target departments (Damagaram Takaya department and Goure department in the Zinder region, Niger) that are affecting both health and livelihoods. The break rate[1] of water infrastructure is 8.8% in Zinder overall – and 11.7% and 11% in Gouré and Damagaram Takaya, respectively – as compared to an 8.5% national average. Access to potable water in rural areas is still comparatively low at 40% in Gouré and 35.5% in Damagaram Takaya as compared to a national average in rural areas of 45.5%. Open defecation remains high, exceeding 80% in rural areas. Access to improved sanitation facilities is estimated to be only 11.45% in the region.

Wadata will contribute to improvements in these areas through enhanced secure and equitable water access, combined with improved hygiene and sanitation knowledge and practices (the latter through a comprehensive social behavior change (SBC) strategy). This will be reinforced by a strong role for water management governance structures, collaborating with Government of Niger counterparts and the private sector. Complementing the findings of community consultations, the SBC Study, and the Gender & Youth Analysis, the proposed Hygiene, Sanitation and Water Services Study will contribute to a better understanding of the status of – and strategies to improve – community hygiene, sanitation and water management practices and services.

 II.  Purpose and Objective

The purpose of this solicitation is to hire an international WASH specialist to support the consultant team comprised of the profiles and competencies in the section below.

The objective of the consultancy is to provide technical and research expertise in the areas of WASH, CLTS approach, water infrastructure and make contributions to the deliverables.

III.   Team Composition / Team Lead Competencies

The international consultant will join a local Nigerien consultant and work closely with the Wadata project staff and other stakeholders on the design and operations of the research activity. Their technical backgrounds will be on sustainable sanitation, CLTS approach, WASH private sector, water infrastructure management; including knowledge of the Niger context.

The consultancy team will involve appropriate GoN Technical Services specialist / representatives (from Ministry of Water Hygiene and Sanitation and from Ministry of Health) based on their availability to participate.  At the very least, they will be among the KII.

Technical advice / feedback to consultant findings will be offered by a “dedicated WASH technical team” including Wadata technical staff (P3, P1 and SBC Coordinator); DEMI-E and Save the Children US (SCUS); the Water Security and Resilience Activity (WSRA); and Breakthrough Action teams.

IV.   Research Study Details

               a.    Research Justification

The end line results of the FY12 Development Food Aid Programs (DFAPs) in Niger reveal relatively poor uptake of hygiene and sanitation behaviors despite improved knowledge levels, as well as challenges in achieving and maintaining open defecation free (ODF) status.

Literature on the private sector indicates “working with communities to strengthen non-market technical support such as identifying, strengthening and promoting local solutions where the market is not strong enough to deliver sanitation goods and services” will improve the impact of market-based approaches.[2] As private sector promotion is a driver of Wadata, it is important that the Activity understand the sanitation market context.

According to PROSEHA 2016-2030[3], “Niger has taken the option of providing drinking water service mainly through infrastructure that ensures access through taps; meaning “Adduction d’Eau Potable” (AEP) or “Poste d’Eau Autonome” (PEA) systems, which are not yet very common at this time in the Wadata area.”[4] The Government of Niger (GoN) WASH sector strategy does not mention Multiple Use Water Services (MUS) approach, which can be part of this orientation. It is important the Wadata team better understand what has been the success and experience on these systems and approaches.

Wadata required additional information to improve upon the experiences and results of existing WASH program activities. This will enable Wadata to address barriers to the adoption of improved behaviors (to be addressed by the SBC Study); understand characteristics of communities successfully achieving and maintaining ODF status; current water point locations and management arrangements; and important features of successful water service provision and private sector engagement in WASH product/service provision. This information will overlap with WASH gender dynamics (covered by the SBC Study and Gender & Youth Analysis). The proposed study will take place from June to mid-September 2019, and will inform Wadata’s subsequent water services and WASH implementation approaches, plans and activities.

            b.    Key Research Objectives

The objectives of the study are to:

  • Determine key characteristics and factors common to communities successfully achieving ODF status[5] maintaining ODF status and upgrading latrines
  • Assess key WASH infrastructures and services most likely to be sustainable and inventory current water services and practices for the management of those services
  • Assess the demand and supply dynamics for hygiene, sanitation and water products and services[6]
             c.     Research Methods

Research Questions

The consultants shall perform, as a team, a desk-review of existing WASH literature and GoN policies to determine what questions can be included or removed from the final questionnaires.

Sanitation and Hygiene area

  • In each commune, what communities (number, names) have successfully achieved ODF status? Which have maintained their ODF status over time?[7] What are the factors (i.e., internal to the community[8], enabling community surroundings/ environment, quality of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) implementation[9], post ODF/ post CLTS support and/or internal mechanism developed[10], incentives, other…) of the success to maintain ODF status?
  • What are the common defining traits/features/characteristics of positive-deviant ODF communities? What are the common defining traits/features/characteristics of positive-deviant households practicing appropriate sanitation (in ODF villages or not)? What are the common features of households[11] practicing appropriate hygiene (including handwashing station) over a long time?
  • What are the current existing models of latrines and handwashing stations? What models are the most affordable and sustainable? What are common challenges for hygiene infrastructure? What is the appropriate approach for increasing basic sanitation based on Wadata context analysis (market based sanitation, working with communities to strengthen non-market technical support…)? Is there a need for new designs and/or new approaches for sanitation and hygiene? If yes, what are suggestions for testing “Wadata human centered design models”?
  • Based on Government of Niger policy, Wadata budget, findings from Gender & Youth Analysis[12], SBC study[13], and current study, what is the proposed “feuille de route” or pathway to conduct sanitation (with CLTS approach) and hygiene activities (methodology, stakeholder participation for engagement, technical content, characteristics of first communities to work with as entry point, and potential testing[14])?

Water services area

  • Are there any currently existing MUS models of one water points for drinking water supply and for irrigation or livestock use in project area[15]? What is the design? What is the management model? Is it successful/ sustainable? What are the challenges? Can we replicate the MUS models be in Wadata (i.e., one water point for several major uses)?
  • What are the currently used tap water systems (i.e., AEP multi villages, mini AEP simple and PEA)?[16] What are their technical, financial and O&M characteristics? What are their management systems? What technical models and management systems are the most sustainable and appreciated by the customers?
  • What are the common defining traits/features/characteristics of positive-deviant Water Point Management Committees? Of any other successful water management systems?
  • What are water treatment practices and water quality control in the Wadata area? What are the characteristics of the positive-deviant water treatment and water quality control practices at water points and household-level?
  • What are drinking water practices in the context of small villages (less than 250 people), of hamlets?
  • What are current water usage patterns (successes/challenges), inclusive of both settled/ seasonal community members and pastoral communities (HH) who use village water points for water usage?

WASH market area


  • What WASH products are available and how widely available are they (e.g., including menstrual hygiene management products, soap and detergents, water treatment products)?
  • Are services for latrine and handwashing station construction and maintenance available?
  • Are water service equipment products available, and are after-sales services provided (e.g., pumps and water point parts and supplies)? What are their strengths and weakness?


  • How do vendors describe current demand for WASH products?
  • Is there demand for latrine and handwashing stations construction and maintenance?
  • Is water point and sanitation facility maintenance a viable livelihoods strategy? If yes, what are the current capacity, practices, and skill levels?
  • Are rural consumers willing to pay for WASH products and services, if yes, describe what types of services they are willing to pay for)?

Data Collection Methods

This qualitative study will utilize key informant interviews at the department, commune, firm/ entrepreneur, and Community Health Worker level, in addition to focus group discussions at the village member and Water Point Management Group levels.

Village selection is based on ODF status and the presence of key water infrastructure (MUS, AEP, PEA).

Data collection tools will be developed and validated with the Wadata team, Water Security Resilience Activity (WSRA) managed by Winrock International, NCBA CLUSA water management services specialists, and DEMI-E’s organizational headquarters. The following data collection tools will be developed:

  • Key informant interview (KII) questionnaire for department officials;
  • KII questionnaire for commune official;
  • KII questionnaire, and observation sheets if relevant, for water and hygiene and sanitation firms or entrepreneurs;
  • KII questionnaire for community health worker;
  • Focus group discussion (FGD) questionnaire for village residents/ household users;
  • FGD questionnaire for water point management groups;
  • Interview guides for interviews with department and commune officials, business operators, village leaders, community health workers, village members, and Water Point Management Group members;
  • Water point inventory sheet (for compilation at the commune level);
  • Water management community-based organizations list (for compilation at the commune level); and,
  • ODF village list (for compilation at the commune level).

The consultant will also use a Positive Deviance Approach for some aspects of the Formative Research as described in the Research Questions.

Data Analysis Methods

In accordance with this Scope of Works (SoW), the methodology will be developed by the consultant lead/focal point of the WASH Analysis to be approved by the program team. He /She will describe in the methodology how to conduct the study by specifying the different phases in the villages selected as sample. The consultant must be able to handle data entry, cleaning and analysis by appropriate software such as EPI Info, SPSS, EXCEL or other relevant and statistically proven software.

V.  Preliminary Results Application Plan

The study team will work closely with Wadata’s senior management team, the Wadata technical team, representatives of WRSA and Breakthrough Action, and technical specialists from DEMI-E and NCBA CLUSA to analyze the study’s findings and determine the implication of these findings for the adjustment of Wadata Theory of Change and planned Wadata WASH activities. The PRO WASH team and USAID will also be engaged in these processes as feasible.

Recommendations emerging from this Hygiene, Sanitation and Water Services Study will be augmented by WASH-related findings from the SBC Study and the Gender & Youth Analysis to arrive at preliminary approaches. Wadata will vet these preliminary approaches with community leadership, communes and Technical Services officials and in community consultations culminating in a dedicated workshop and make modifications based on feedback before integration into the Activity’s implementation.

Wadata will take the lead in organizing WASH working group among the DFSA implementing partners to share knowledge, learning and best practices.

VI.  Deliverables

The international consultant shall be responsible for the following deliverables:

  • Work Plan for the consultant team
  • Literature Review and findings
  • Develop data collection tools and methodology for research field work
  • Draft analysis report that includes the following:
    • Research questions
    • Methodology and Limitations of the research
    • Findings (summary of key findings)
    • Results Action Plan that includes concrete and actionable recommendations on how to apply the findings.
    • Annexes (list of interviewees, interview schedule, survey questionnaires, etc.)
  • Presentation on findings to Wadata technical teams and DFSA IPs
  • Final Report

VII.  Period of Performance / Timeline

Activity Expected Activity Completion Date
Consultant develops detailed work plan July 2019
Consultant develops assessment tools and testing July 2019
Field work August 2019
Data analysis August 2019
Draft report submission and Study Results sharing August 2019
Report review September 2019
Final report September 2019


The total period of performance to accomplish this work scheduled in the SoW is from June to September 2019. The scope of work will include up to 25 days of LOE for all activities including the literature review, development of tools, field work and reporting writing.

VIII.  Qualifications

  • 10 or more years’ experience in carrying out WASH studies / evaluations and qualitative studies
  • 5 or more years’ experience in WASH sector in West Africa, with a plus for experiences in Niger
  • Strong research design and coordination skills, as well as a proven track record to deliver the highest quality and most credible evidence on a timely basis despite logistical and administrative challenges
  • Fluency in French and English

IX.  Application Requirements

  • Cover letter highlighting experience (5 pages maximum);
  • Resume or CV highlighting relevant experience for proposed consultant (no page limit).
  • List of at least three references, including contact information (1-page maximum).
  • Daily rate

Deadline for Submission: 5pm EST on the date listed on page 1 of the RFP

 X.  Evaluation Criteria

  • Past performance 40%
  • Qualifications and experience             30%
  • Cost                                                 30%

XI. Relevant Resources

Government of Niger Policy

  1. Ministère de l’Hydraulique et de l’Assainissement (Novembre 2016), Programme Sectoriel Eau Hygiène et Assainissement (PROSEHA) 2016–2030
  2. Ministère de l’Hydraulique et de l’Assainissement, July 2018, Guide de mise en œuvre de l’assainissement total piloté par la communauté (ATPC) au Niger

Other Resource Documents for Consultant Desk/Literature Review

  1. USAID (2018) An Examination of CLTS’s Contributions toward Universal Sanitation, Washington, DC.: USAID Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Partnerships and Sustainability (WASHPaLS) Project,
  2. USAID (2018) Scaling market-based sanitation. Desk Review on Market-Based Rural Sanitation Development Programs. Washington, DC: USAID Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Partnerships and Learning for Sustainability (WASHPaLS),
  3. Myers, J. and Gnilo, M. (2017) ‘Supporting the Poorest and Most Vulnerable in CLTS Programs’, CLTS Knowledge Hub learning Paper, Brighton: IDS, 
  4. IDS (2018) ‘West and Central Africa Regional Rural Sanitation Workshop’ CLTS Knowledge Hub Learning Brief 5, Brighton: IDS,
  5. WaterAid, Plan and UNICEF (2019) Guidance on Programming for Rural Sanitation,
  6. Venkataramanan, V., Hueso, A., Yamakoshi, B., Stricker, J., Gnilo, M. and Coultas, M. (2017) Rethinking Rural Sanitation Approaches, Discussion Brief, The Water Institute at UNC, WaterAid, UNICEF and Plan,
  7. UNICEF (2013) Sanitation Marketing Learning Series: Guidance note 1: How do I know if SanMark will work in my country?,
  8. WHO (2018) Guidelines on sanitation and health, Geneva: World Health Organization,
  9. UNICEF. UNICEF’s Gameplan to End Open Defecation New York: UNICEF Headquarters; 2018. Accesible at:
  10. WHO/UNICEF. Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2017 update and SDG baselines. Geneva: WHO and UNICEF 2017. Accessible at:
  11. WHO/UNICEF. A snapshot of Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in the UNICEF West and Central Africa Region. Geneva: WHO and UNICEF; 2017.
  12. UNICEF. Sanitation Market Shaping Strategy Brief. Copenhagen: UNICEF Supply Division 2018. Accesible at: Sanitation Market Shaping_Strategy BriefFINAL.pdf
  13. USAID. Scaling market-based sanitation. Desk Review on Market-Based Rural Sanitation Development Programs. Washington, DC: USAID Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Partnerships and Learning for Sustainability (WASHPaLS) Project; 2018. Accessible at:

[1] Break rate for water infrastructure refers to the number of water infrastructures broken compared to the total number of water infrastructures in the area.


[3] Programme sectoriel Eau Hygiène Assainissement 2016-2030.

[4] According to the Guidiguir commune PLEA (Water and Sanitation Local Plan), there are 8 AEP and PEA (in 8 communities).

[5] In the Wadata target areas, given the low WASH capacity and financial challenges experienced by most wealth categories within villages in Zinder Department, we expect the number of successful ODF villages to be very small and therefore a manageable survey task to undertake.

[6] USAID/FFP Niger DFAP Final Evaluation Report suggested exploring market opportunities for WASH products to ensure long-term sustainability.

[7] As mentioned in Wadata proposal, pre-requisite for MUS engagement will include community willingness to pay for water services and demonstrated community leadership in hygiene and sanitation. Village response to this prerequisite will help prioritize communities for MUS investments

[8] Factors such as size of the community, leadership, environment, governance, wealth status, and – to the extent feasible – household and community-based organization behaviors and attitudes

[9] Quality or characteristics of CLTS implementation/facilitation can be a factor for success.

[10] Refers to solutions to address technical challenges (collapsing pits in sandy soils…); increase households’ investments to upgrade latrines for sustaining CLTS outcomes: private sector promotion; village-based financing mechanisms through collective financing or self-help groups; targeting smart subsidies to those in need to ensure that gains made as a result of CLTS are sustained; and communal/ community post-ODF action plans.

[11] With Wadata focused on poor, very poor, and vulnerable targeted households.

[12] The Gender and Youth analysis supports an increased understanding of gender and disability implications as it pertains to water access and WASH practices.

[13] The SBC study supports staff enhanced understanding of knowledge, attitudes and practices required to achieve and maintain improved hygiene and sanitation practices.

[14] Such as low-cost, structurally appropriate latrine designs that address collapsing issue.

[15] MUS stands for Multiple Use Water Services, not Multiple Uses Water Systems. It means MUS can be one water point for several uses, or it can be several water points for one use per water point. In this research question, we want to know more about potential existing water point for several major uses (drinking water + livestock / irrigation for gardening).

[16] These are the three models promoted under PROSEHA.

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